according to the kalam cosmological argument

He appeals to David Hume's thesis (An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding) that effects without causes can be conceived in the mind, and that what is conceivable in the mind is possible in the real world. Today this argument, largely forgotten since the time of Kant, is once again back at center stage. He concludes that subatomic physics is not a proven exception to the first premise.[34]. The most commonly used form is “horizontal,” also known as the kalam cosmological argument. [44] In private correspondence with Stenger, Vilenkin remarked how the Aguirre-Gratton model attempts to evade a beginning by reversing the "arrow of time" at t = 0, but that: "This makes the moment t = 0 rather special. Hey guys, I'm an atheist and I've recently been looking more in-depth at some arguments for God's existence to challenge myself :) I was already familiar with the Kalam (popularized by William Lane Craig), but I hadn't read that much about it. (2) Conclusions regarding existence can only flow from premises based on direct human experience of existing entities. G.E.M. One of the earliest formulations of the cosmological argument in Islamic tradition comes from Al-Ghazali, who writes: Between the 9th to 12th centuries, the cosmological argument developed as a concept within Islamic theology. What is the Ontological argument for the existence of God? This is the formulation of the argument which I understand you to be using: 1. This premise seems intuitively obvious. My response in the video includes more detail. 15–16. Furthermore, Since the cause of the universe must exist outside time, space, and all material, the cause must be spaceless, timeless, and non-material; i.e. A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy (not cosmology), is an argument in which the existence of God is inferred from alleged facts concerning causation, explanation, change, motion, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects. The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. According to Kalam cosmological argument, it is precisely as the universe is thought to have a beginning in time that its existence is thought to stand in need of explanation. Although it hadnumerous defenders through the centuries, it received new life in therecent voluminous writings of William Lane Craig. Faith and philosophy, 19(2). Moreover, that the Causal Principle cannot be extrapolated to the universe from inductive experience. What is the Kalam Cosmological Argument? If you aren’t familiar with the KCA, here is a version of it: Everything that begins to exist has a transcendent cause of its existence. Its historic proponents include Al-Kindi,[8] Al-Ghazali,[9] and St. He states: In reply, Craig has maintained that causal laws are unrestricted metaphysical truths that are "not contingent upon the properties, causal powers, and dispositions of the natural kinds of substances which happen to exist", remarking: A common objection to premise one appeals to the phenomenon of quantum indeterminacy, where, at the subatomic level, the causal principle appears to break down. One such argument is the kalam cosmological argument. There are a handful of famous arguments for the existence of a god. Good day, Mr Minton, I've happened to stumble upon your blog post on the Kalam Cosmological Argument, and I seem to have a few objections which I don't think you have ever addressed, whether in that blog post or in the blog category. It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated. [26] This argument has been criticised by Bruce Reichenbach and G.E.M. Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa theologiae, presented two versions of the cosmological argument: the first-cause argument and the argument from contingency.The first-cause argument begins with the fact that there is change in the world, and a change is always the effect of some cause or causes. What is the principle of sufficient reason? It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979). In a review of Krauss's book, he states: Likewise, Craig has argued that the quantum vacuum, in containing quantifiable, measurable energy, cannot be described as 'nothing', therefore, that phenomena originating from the quantum vacuum cannot be described as 'uncaused'. Scientific confirmation against a past-infinite universe in the form of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. supernatural. A. Çubukçu and H. Atay (Ankara: University of Ankara Press, 1962), pp. Quantum mechanics does not in fact posit something coming from nothing, but rather things coming from the quantum vacuum–which is not “nothing.” The universe began to exist. A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy (not cosmology), is an argument in which the existence of God is inferred from alleged facts concerning causation, explanation, change, motion, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects. 2. Modern discourse encompasses the fields of both philosophy and science (quantum physics and cosmology), which Bruce Reichenbach summarises as: Craig defends the first premise as follows:[20][21], According to Reichenbach, "the Causal Principle has been the subject of extended criticism", which can be divided into philosophical and scientific criticisms.[22]. [23][24][25] Oppy states: Mackie affirms that there is no good reason to assume a priori that an uncaused beginning of all things is impossible. The Kalam Cosmological Argument is a product of the tradition of Islamic science known as Ilm al-Kalam, which was established in order to defend the Islamic faith against academic criticism. [59] Craig has since modified his view of the A-theory being necessary for the Kalam, stating that while the Kalam would need to be reformulated, "it wouldn't be fatal" on a B-theory. According to Craig, the kalam cosmological argument establishes that A) the God of Christianity exist B) the universe has a cause C) the Big Bang model is false D) the universe is uncaused B) the universe has a … If you are anything like me, and the vast majority of the country, you are now no doubt stuck at home for the foreseeable future while we ride out this pandemic. [1], Since Craig's original publication, the Kalam cosmological argument has elicited public debate between Craig and Graham Oppy, Adolf Grünbaum, J. L. Mackie and Quentin Smith, and has been used in Christian apologetics. Averroes, Ibn Rushd, The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-Tahafut) London:Luzac, 1954, pp. [15] Al-Ghazali was unconvinced by the first-cause arguments of Al-Kindi, arguing that only the infinite per se is impossible, arguing for the possibility of the infinite per accidens. ), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 183, Oppy G (2002). Vilenkin, A. It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated. The structure of the premises for this argument are: Muslim theologians, when Islam swept over Egypt in North Africa, absorbed the Christian thought that had been in those areas, like in Alexandria, which was … The universe began to exist. This feature distinguishes it from other cosmological arguments, such as that of Thomas Aquinas, which rests on the impossibility of a causally ordered infinite regress, and those of Leibniz and Samuel Clarke, which refer to the Principle of Sufficient Reason. According to the kalam cosmological argument, it is because the universe is thought to have a beginning in time that its existence is thought to stand in need of explanation (Philosophy of Religion, 2018). [60], Premise one: "Whatever begins to exist has a cause. This suggests a creator. Moreland, James Porter, and William Lane. The claim of the first premise is “whatever begins to exist had a cause.” It’s often demonstrated by listing the causal principle “something cannot come from nothing,” or ex nihilo, nihilo fit. Modal forms of cosmological argument is consistent with the universe having an infinite past. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1993): 623-639. 5 It is important to note, however, that the KCA is not intrinsically predicated on any one religion, nor is it restricted to monotheism. The argument is grounded upon the supposed impossibility of an actual infinity of past events. The mathematical impossibility of forming an actual infinite by successive addition. Honestly, I do find the Kalam argument (KCA) powerful, but of course I first encountered it from the perspective of a believer. I find this argument kind of fascinating. 2. Therefore, the universe cannot be infinitely old. On the topic of virtual particles, he writes: Cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin has stated that even "the absence of space, time and matter" cannot truly be defined as 'nothing' given that the laws of physics are still present, though it would be "as close to nothing as you can get".[39]. J. T. Grieg (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1, 187. This is why the argument is often expanded to show that at least some of these attributes are necessarily true, for instance in the modern Kalam argument given above. The word “ kalam ” is an Arabic word that denotes medieval Islamic theology. Is there an alternative to this argument? The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. The argument generally goes something like this: This argument presupposes presentism or the A Theory of time. Philosopher Quentin Smith has cited the example of virtual particles, which appear and disappear from observation, apparently at random, to assert the tenability of uncaused natural phenomena. Answer: e Question 9 3 out of 3 points According to David Hume, God is best defined as "the greatest conceivable being." November 10, 2016 at 11:13 am Reply. Is God the unmoved mover of Aristotle’s teachings. Moreover, a primary metaphysical principle states, “out of nothing, nothing comes.” Consider the fact that if something could come from absolutely nothing, then anything … David Hume to John Stewart, February 1754, in The Letters of David Hume, 2 vols., ed. ", "Initial Arguments: A Defense of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God", "Cosmological Argument: The Causal Principle and Quantum Physics", "Methuselah's Diary and the Finitude of the Past", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kalam_cosmological_argument&oldid=1000260756, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from September 2014, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, If the universe has a cause, then an uncaused, personal Creator of the universe exists who, Therefore, an uncaused, personal Creator of the universe exists, who. "[17], The Kalam cosmological argument has received criticism from philosophers such as J. L. Mackie, Graham Oppy, Michael Martin, Quentin Smith, physicists Paul Davies, Lawrence Krauss and Victor Stenger, and authors such as Dan Barker.[18]. I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist by Norm Geisler and Frank Turek. The universe is not an entity in itself. Answer: This is a fundamental misunderstanding of the claim. 141–172. Physical Review Letters 90 (15): 151301. Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence. Morriston W (2002). "[45], At the "State of the Universe" conference at Cambridge University in January 2012, Vilenkin discussed problems with various theories that would claim to avoid the need for a cosmological beginning, alleging the untenability of eternal inflation, cyclic and cosmic egg models, eventually concluding: "All the evidence we have says that the universe had a beginning. Steady-state eternal inflation; Phys. Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1963 pp. (2007) Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes, p.175, Aguirre A and Gratton S (2002). [58], It has recently been argued that a defense of the Kalam cosmological argument does not have to involve such a commitment to the A-theory. Let’s begin by analyzing the first premise: “Whatever begins to exist has a cause.” We see examples of this every day in our lives. Prometheus Books, 2012. [2] According to Michael Martin, the cosmological arguments presented by Craig, Bruce Reichenbach, and Richard Swinburne are "among the most sophisticated and well argued in contemporary theological philosophy". Causes and Beginnings in the Kalam Argument. See also: al Ghazali, Kitab al lqtisad, with a foreword by Î. According to Craig, the Kalam Cosmological Argument is constructed as follows: Whatever begins to exist, has a cause of its existence. The main content of this argument is depended on the feature of temporality of the universe and existents. Francis J. Kovach, 'The Question of the Eternity of the World in St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas – A Critical Analysis', Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 5 (1974), pp. Therefore, it follows that the universe cannot be infinitely old and began to exist. The Kalam Cosmological Argument, as made famous by William Lane Craig, is among the most popular arguments for God among online Christians. Some have been around for centuries, and new arguments are popping up every day. "Inflationary space-times are incomplete in past directions". I would say no less special than a true beginning of the universe. The Kalam Cosmological Argument leads us to the conclusion that the universe does, indeed, have a cause. [33] Craig replies that the phenomenon of indeterminism is specific to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, pointing out that this is only one of a number of different interpretations, some of which he states are fully deterministic (mentioning David Bohm) and none of which are as yet known to be true. What is the kalam cosmological argument for the existence of God? : A Rejoinder, The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe, Why Physicists Can't Avoid A Creation Event, "Presentism, Ontology and Temporal Experience", "Dr. Craig Answers Questions on the Kalam, Heaven, Free Will, B-Theory, and MORE! Morriston W (2000). Craig holds to the A-theory of time, also known as the "tensed theory of time" or presentism, as opposed to its alternative, the B-theory of time, also known as the "tenseless theory of time" or eternalism. The latter would allow the universe to exist tenselessly as a four-dimensional space-time block, under which circumstances the universe would not "begin to exist":[54] The form of the Kalam he presents rests on this theory: Craig has defended the A-theory against objections from J. M. E. McTaggart and hybrid A–B theorists. "[46], On the impossibility of actual infinities, Craig asserts:[47]. Crossref Alex Malpass, Wes Morriston, Endless and Infinite, The Philosophical Quarterly, 10.1093/pq/pqaa005, (2020). An infinite amount of time can never truly pass (because infinite time would never run out). Anscombe, who point out the phenomenological and logical problems in inferring factual possibility from conceivability. Professor Alexander Vilenkin, one of the three authors of the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem, writes: Victor J. Stenger has referred to the Aguirre-Gratton model[43] for eternal inflation as an exemplar by which others disagree with the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem. 58, Iqbal, Muhammad The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Lahore:Institute of Islamic Culture, 1986, Al-Ghazzali, Tahafut Al-Falasifah (The Incoherence of Philosophers), translated by Sabih Ahmad Kamali. For this, he cites the example of a parent "creating" a child who eventually becomes greater than he or she. Through the decay of uranium, lead is causedto come into existence, the car factory causes the car to come into existence, and your parents caused you to come into existence. [3], The most prominent form of the argument, as defended by William Lane Craig, states the Kalam cosmological argument as the following brief syllogism:[4], Given the conclusion, Craig appends a further premise and conclusion based upon a conceptual analysis of the properties of the cause of the universe:[5], Referring to the implications of Classical Theism that follow from this argument, Craig writes:[6]. The Kalam cosmological argument fails as a proof of the existence of God. "The Caused Beginning of the Universe: a Response to Quentin Smith." Craig defends premise two using both physical arguments with evidence from cosmology and physics, and metaphysical arguments for the impossibility of actual infinities in reality. Huduth argument (in contemporary Western philosophy known as Kalam Cosmological argument) is an argument for the existence of God which rests on the idea that the universe has a beginning in time. [35] In his book A Universe from Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing, cosmologist Lawrence Krauss has proposed how quantum mechanics can explain how space-time and matter can emerge from 'nothing' (referring to the quantum vacuum). According to the kalam, there can be only one itself-uncaused-and-eternal thing that causes all other things, and that first cause is God. THE KALAM COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT (Written not by Curtis Hrischuk but by some other fellow) What follows is a short presentation of the Kalam Cosmological Argument for the existence of God. Craig. Islamic perspectives may be divided into positive Aristotelian responses strongly supporting the argument, such as those by Al-Kindi, and Averroes, and negative responses critical of it, including those by Al-Ghazali and Muhammad Iqbal. [7] Along with much of classical Greek philosophy, the concept was adopted into medieval Islamic tradition, where it received its fullest articulation at the hands of Muslim scholars, most directly by Islamic theologians of the Sunni tradition. It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979). Another criticism comes from Thomist philosopher Dr. Edward Feser who claims that past and future events are potential rather than actual, meaning that an infinite past could exist in a similar way to how an infinite number of potential halfway points exist between any two given points (as was discussed in one of Zeno's paradoxes). The argument's key underpinning idea is the metaphysical impossibility of actual infinities and of a temporally past-infinite universe, traced by Craig to 11th-century Persian Muslim scholastic philosopher Al-Ghazali. The Kalam cosmological argument is based on the concept of the prime-mover, introduced by Aristotle, and entered early Christian or Neoplatonist philosophy in Late Antiquity, being developed by John Philoponus. Likewise, as the universe began, then it must also have been caused. To defend the thesis that the whole of physical reality was caused to exist a finite time ago, William Lane Whatever begins to exist has a cause. The basic cosmological argument merely establishes that a First Cause exists, not that it has the attributes of a theistic god, such as omniscience, omnipotence, and omnibenevolence. The second of these premises requires some more explanation. It was refined in the 11th century by Al-Ghazali (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), and in the 12th by Ibn Rushd (Averroes). Cosmological Argument - Kalam Argument. The sources used in this presentation are documented according to … It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated. The Kalam Cosmological Argument, which was developed from Moorish Spain, employs logical reasoning in asserting the existence of God. Faith and Philosophy, 17:149. It’s details the many criticisms of the argument, all in one place: 3. Scientific evidence that the universe began to exist a finite time ago at the Big Bang. In case you’re interested, I have a new book out debunking the KCA. Because of its historic roots in medieval Islamic theology, I christened the argument “the kalam cosmological argument” (“ kalam ” is the Arabic word for medieval theology). 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